Types of Diabetes types
Diabetes mellitus, commonly also known as diabetes, is considered a metabolic disease that causes poor blood sugar. The serum continuously moves sugar from within the sugar molecule into blood cells to be stored or is used for glucose energy. With diabetes, your body needs don’t drink either insulin or can’t to properly use whatever insulin it does make.
Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
There are a few different types of diabetes:
Type 1 is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. About 10% of people with diabetes have this type.
Type 2 occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.
A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is generally not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a rare name. It’s a different condition in medicine in which your normal kidneys remove all too much fluid flowing from your body.
Symptoms of diabetes
Diabetes symptoms are caused by rising blood sugar.
The general symptoms of diabetes include:
- increased hunger
- increased thirst
- weight loss
- frequent urination
- blurry vision
- extreme fatigue
- sores that don’t heal
Symptoms in men
In addition to developing normal clinical symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased intrinsic metabolic drive, erectile dysfunction ( chronic ED ), diabetes, and possibly poor physical strength.
Symptoms in women
Women-induced diabetes can also have adverse symptoms such as urinary tract infections, chronic yeast infections infection, urine dryness, itchy skin.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:
- extreme hunger
- increased thirst
- unintentional weight loss
- frequent urination
- blurry vision
It may also result in mood swings.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include:
- increased hunger
- increased thirst
- increased urination
- blurry vision
- sores that are slow to heal
It may also cause recurring infections. This is because elevated glucose levels make it harder for the body to heal.
Gestational diabetes – Most women with gestational diabetes don’t have any symptoms. The condition deficiency is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation.
In rare cases, a woman with gestational diabetes will also experience increased thirst or urination.
Diabetes symptoms can be so mild that they’re hard to spot at first. Learn which signs should prompt a trip to the doctor.
Causes of diabetes
Different causes are associated with each type of diabetes.
Doctors notation don’t know exactly what number is exactly 1 diabetes. For some cases only, the immune system aggressively attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in mice pancreas.
Genes may play a role in some people. It’s also possible that a virus sets off the immune system attack.
This type of diabetes from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases your risk too. Carrying extra weight, especially in your belly, makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.
This condition runs in families. Family members share the genes that make them more likely to get type 2 diabetes and to be overweight.
Gestational diabetes is the result of hormonal changes during pregnancy. The placenta produces hormones that make a pregnant woman’s cells less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This can cause high blood sugar during pregnancy.
Women who are overweight when they get pregnant or who gain too much weight during their pregnancy are more likely to get gestational diabetes.
Both genes and environmental factors play an important role in triggering diabetes. Get more information here on the causes of diabetes.
Diabetes risk factors
Certain factors increase your risk for diabetes.
You’re more likely to get type 1 diabetes if you’re a child or teenager, you have a parent or sibling with the condition, or you carry certain genes that are linked to the disease.
Your risk for type 2 diabetes increases if you:
- are overweight
- are age 45 or older
- have a parent or sibling with the condition
- aren’t physically active
- have had gestational diabetes
- have prediabetes
- have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides
- have African American, Hispanic or Latino American, Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, American Indian, or Asian American ancestry
Your risk for gestational diabetes increases if you:
- are overweight
- are over age 25
- had gestational diabetes during a past pregnancy
- have given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
- have a family history of type 2 diabetes
- have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Your family, environment, and preexisting medical conditions can all affect your odds of developing diabetes. Find out which risks you can control and which ones you can’t.
High blood sugar damages organs and tissues throughout your body. The higher your blood sugar is and the longer you live with it, the greater your risk for complications.
Complications associated with diabetes include:
- heart disease, heart attack, and stroke
- retinopathy and vision loss
- hearing loss
- foot damage such as infections and sores that don’t heal
- skin conditions such as bacterial and fungal infections
Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to problems that affect both the mother and baby. Complications affecting the baby can include:
- premature birth
- higher-than-normal weight at birth
- increased risk for type 2 diabetes later in life
- low blood sugar
The mother can develop complications such as high blood pressure (preeclampsia) or type 2 diabetes. She may also require cesarean delivery, commonly referred to as a C-section.
The mother’s risk of gestational diabetes in future pregnancies also increases.
Diabetes can lead to serious medical complications, but you can manage the condition with medications and lifestyle changes. Avoid the most common diabetes complications with these helpful tips.
Treatment of diabetes
Doctors treat diabetes with a few different medications. Some of these drugs are taken by mouth, while others are available as injections.
Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces the hormone your body isn’t able to produce.
There are four types of insulin that are most commonly used. They’re differentiated by how quickly they start to work, and how long their effects last:
- Rapid-acting insulin starts to work within 15 minutes and its effects last for 3 to 4 hours.
- Short-acting insulin starts to work within 30 minutes and lasts 6 to 8 hours.
- Intermediate-acting insulin starts to work within 1 to 2 hours and lasts 12 to 18 hours.
- Long-acting insulin starts to work a few hours after injection and lasts 24 hours or longer.
Diet and exercise can help some people manage type 2 diabetes. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood sugar, you’ll need to take medication.
These drugs lower your blood sugar in a variety of ways:
|Types of drug||How they work||Example(s)|
|Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors||Slow your body’s breakdown of sugars and starchy foods||Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset)|
|Biguanides||Reduce the amount of glucose your liver makes||Metformin (Glucophage)|
|DPP-4 inhibitors||Improve your blood sugar without making it drop too low||Linagliptin (Tradjenta), saxagliptin (Onglyza), and sitagliptin (Januvia)|
|Glucagon-like peptides||Change the way your body produces insulin||Dulaglutide (Trulicity), exenatide (Byetta), and liraglutide (Victoza)|
|Meglitinides||Stimulate your pancreas to release more insulin||Nateglinide (Starlix) and repaglinide (Prandin)|
|SGLT2 inhibitors||Release more glucose into the urine||Canagliflozin (Invokana) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga)|
|Sulfonylureas||Stimulate your pancreas to release more insulin||Glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol), and glimepiride (Amaryl)|
|Thiazolidinediones||Help insulin work better||Pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia)|
You may need to take more than one of these drugs. Some people with type 2 diabetes also take insulin.
You’ll need to monitor your blood sugar level several times a day during pregnancy. If it’s high, dietary changes and exercise may or may not be enough to bring it down.
According to the Mayo Clinic, about 10 to 20% of women with gestational diabetes will need insulin to lower their blood sugar. Insulin is safe for the growing baby.
The drug or combination of drugs that your doctor prescribes will depend on the type of diabetes you have — and its cause.
Diabetes and diet
Healthy eating is a central part of managing diabetes. In some cases, changing your diet may be enough to control the disease.
Your blood sugar level rises or falls based on the types of foods you eat. Starchy or sugary foods make blood sugar levels rise rapidly. Protein and fat cause more gradual increases.
Your medical team may recommend that you limit the number of carbohydrates you eat each day. You’ll also need to balance your carb intake with your insulin doses.
Work with a dietitian who can help you design a diabetes meal plan. Getting the right balance of protein, fat, and carbs can help you control your blood sugar.
Eating the right types of foods can both control your blood sugar and help you lose any excess weight.
Carb counting is an important part of eating for type 2 diabetes. A dietitian can help you figure out how many grams of carbohydrates to eat at each meal.
In order to keep your blood sugar levels steady, try to eat small meals throughout the day. Emphasize healthy foods such as:
- whole grains
- lean protein such as poultry and fish
- healthy fats such as olive oil and nuts
Certain other foods can undermine efforts to keep your blood sugar in control.
Eating a well-balanced meditation is important essential for properly preparing you and your companions during practicing these nine months. Making the best food choices can also help people avoid eating disorders medications.
Watch minimum grain content, maximum limit sugary or slightly salty foods. Although you need enough cane sugar to feed your growing vegetables, you should consider eating too much.
Consider developing an action plan with the help of a dietitian or nutritionist. They’ll indicate that if your opponent still has the same maximum score of macronutrients.
Anyone who has symptoms of infection or illness is at risk for the disease should be tested. Women are also routinely tested for gestational childhood diabetes during their second or third trimesters instead of pregnancy.
Doctors use these blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:
- The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test measures your blood sugar after you’ve fasted for 8 hours.
- The A1C test provides a snapshot of your blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months.
To diagnose gestational diabetes, your doctor will test your blood sugar levels between the 24th and 28th weeks of your pregnancy.
- During the glucose challenge test, your blood sugar is checked an hour after you drink a sugary liquid.
- During the 3 hour glucose tolerance test, your blood sugar is checked after you fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid.
The earlier you get diagnosed with diabetes, the sooner you can start treatment.
Type 1 diabetes isn’t preventable because it’s caused by a problem with the immune system. Some causes of type 2 diabetes, such as your genes or age, aren’t under your control either.
Yet many other diabetes risk factors are controllable. Most diabetes prevention strategies involve making simple adjustments to your diet and fitness routine.
If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, here are a few things you can do to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes:
- Get at least 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise, such as walking or cycling.
- Cut saturated and trans fats, along with refined carbohydrates, out of your diet.
- Eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Eat smaller portions.
- Try to lose 7%Trusted Source of your body weight if you’re overweight or obese.
These aren’t the only ways to prevent diabetes.
Diabetes in pregnancy
Women who’ve never had diabetes can suddenly develop gestational diabetes in pregnancy. Hormones produced by the placenta can make your body more resistant to the effects of insulin.
Some women who had diabetes before they conceived carry it with them into pregnancy. This is called pre-gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes should go away after you deliver, but it does significantly increase your risk of getting diabetes later.
About half of women with gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years of delivery, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Having diabetes during your pregnancy can also lead to complications for your newborn, such as jaundice or breathing problems.
If you’re diagnosed with pre-gestational or gestational diabetes, you’ll need special monitoring to prevent complications.
Diabetes in children
Children can get both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Controlling blood sugar is especially important in young people because the disease can damage important organs such as the heart and kidneys.
The autoimmune form of diabetes often starts in childhood. One of the main symptoms is increased urination. Kids with type 1 diabetes may start wetting the bed after they’ve been toilet trained.
Extreme thirst, fatigue, and hunger are also signs of the condition. It’s important that children with type 1 diabetes get treated right away. The disease can cause high blood sugar and dehydration, which can be medical emergencies.
Type 1 diabetes used to be called “juvenile diabetes” because type 2 was so rare in children. Now that more children are overweight or obese, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in this age group.
About 40% of children with type 2 diabetes don’t have symptoms, according to the Mayo Clinic. The disease is often diagnosed during a physical exam.
Untreated type 2 diabetes can cause lifelong complications, including heart disease, kidney disease, and blindness. Healthy eating and exercise can help your child manage their blood sugar and prevent these problems.
Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than ever in young people.
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